A. General Contract Reserve Requirements.
(1) The insurer shall establish a contract reserve in addition to claim reserves and premium reserves for long-term care insurance.
(2) An insurer shall:
(a) Use methods and procedures for long-term care contract reserves that are consistent with those for claim reserves for a long-term care contract; or
(b) If the insurer uses different methods and procedures for long-term care contract reserves than are used for long-term care claim reserves, make appropriate adjustment when necessary to assure provision for the aggregate liability.
(3) The insurer shall use the same definition of date of incurral when determining contract reserves for long-term care insurance as when determining claim reserves for long-term care insurance.
(4) When determining contract reserves for long-term care insurance, the insurer shall include recognition of the waiver of premium benefit in addition to other contract benefits provided for, valuing as a minimum the valuation net premium to be waived.
B. Minimum Standards for Contract Reserves.
(1) Basis of Contract Reserves.
(a) Valuation net premiums used under each long-term care insurance contract shall have a structure consistent with the gross premium structure at issuance of the contract as this relates to advancing age of insured, contract duration, and the period for which gross premiums have been calculated.
(b) An insurer shall value long-term care insurance contracts using tables which are:
(i) Established for reserve purposes by a qualified actuary; and
(ii) Acceptable to the Commissioner.
(c) The morbidity tables used by the insurer shall contain a pattern of incurred claims cost that reflects the underlying morbidity and may not be constructed for the primary purpose of minimizing reserves.
(d) The maximum interest rate used in developing long-term care insurance contract reserves is the same maximum rate permitted by Insurance Article, Title 5, Subtitle 3, Annotated Code of Maryland, in the valuation of whole life insurance:
(i) Issued on the same date as the long-term care insurance contract; and
(ii) With guarantee duration of more than 20 years.
(e) Termination rates used in the computation of contract reserves for long-term care insurance shall be on the basis specified in §B(1)(f), (h), and (i) of this regulation.
(f) The termination rates used in the computation of contract reserves for terminations due to mortality shall be on the basis of:
(i) For policies or group certificates issued before January 1, 2015, the 1983 Group Annuity Mortality Table, as found in COMAR 31.05.05, without projection;
(ii) For policies or group certificates issued on or after January 1, 2015, the 1994 Group Annuity Reserving Table, as found in COMAR 31.05.05, without the projection found in COMAR 31.05.06; or
(iii) Mortality tables that are adopted by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) if the mortality tables are appropriate for the type of benefits and approved by the Commissioner.
(g) The insurer shall request approval to use a table described in §B(1)(f)(iii) of this regulation and shall include in the request for approval the reason that the table specified in §B(1)(f)(i) or (ii) of this regulation is inappropriate.
(h) For policies or group certificates issued before January 1, 2015, the termination rates used in the computation of contract reserves for terminations due to other than mortality may not exceed:
(i) For policy years one through four, the lesser of 80 percent of the voluntary lapse rate used in the calculation of gross premiums and 8 percent; and
(ii) For policy years five and later, the lesser of 100 percent of the voluntary lapse rate used in the calculation of gross premiums and 4 percent.
(i) For policies or group certificates issued on or after January 1, 2015, the termination rates used in the computation of contract reserves for terminations due to other than mortality may not exceed:
(i) For policy year one, the lesser of 80 percent of the voluntary lapse rate used in the calculation of gross premiums and 6 percent;
(ii) For policy years two through four, the lesser of 80 percent of the voluntary lapse rate used in the calculation of gross premiums and 4 percent; and
(iii) For policy years five and later, the lesser of 100 percent of the voluntary lapse rate used in the calculation of gross premiums and 2 percent, except that for employer group long-term care insurance as defined in Regulation .02B(1) of this chapter, 3 percent shall be used in place of 2 percent.
(2) Reserve Method.
(a) For long-term care insurance, the minimum reserve is the reserve calculated on the 1-year full preliminary term method.
(b) For return of premium or other deferred cash benefits in long-term care insurance contracts, the minimum reserve is the reserve calculated as follows:
(i) On the 1-year preliminary term method if the benefits are provided at any time before the 20th anniversary; or
(ii) On the 2-year preliminary term method if the benefits are only provided on or after the 20th anniversary.
(c) The preliminary term method may be applied only in relation to the date of issue of a contract. Reserve adjustments introduced later, as a result of rate increases, revisions in assumptions, or for other reasons, shall be applied immediately as of the effective date of adoption of the adjusted basis.
(d) An example of a revision in assumption described in §B(2)(c) of this regulation is projected inflation rates.
(3) Negative Reserves. Negative reserves on any benefit may be offset against positive reserves for other benefits in the same contract, but the total contract reserve with respect to all benefits combined may not be less than zero.
(4) Nonforfeiture Benefits. The contract reserve for long-term care insurance established by an insurer on a policy basis may not be less than the net single premium for the nonforfeiture benefits at the appropriate policy duration, where the net single premium is computed according to the specifications found in §B(1) and (2) of this regulation.
C. Alternative Valuation Methods and Assumptions Generally. If the contract reserve on all contracts to which an alternative method or basis is applied is not less in the aggregate than the amount determined according to the applicable standards specified in §B of this regulation, an insurer may use, subject to approval by the Commissioner, any reasonable assumptions as to interest rates, termination and mortality rates, and rates of morbidity or other contingency.
D. Tests for Adequacy and Reasonableness of Contract Reserves. If future gross premiums for an insurer's long-term care insurance reduced by expenses for administration, commissions, and taxes will be insufficient to cover future claims, the insurer shall establish contract reserves for the shortfall in the aggregate.