A. Floors. Floors shall be smooth, waterproof, nonabsorbent, capable of being suitably scrubbed with detergents and effective sanitizing products, and capable of normal hospital use. Floor-wall junctions in areas such as waiting areas, examination rooms, treatment rooms, surgery rooms, and kennels shall be sealed to facilitate floor cleaning.
B. Walls. Walls shall be waterproof and smooth and free of cracks or gaps large enough to interfere with effective cleaning.
C. Ceilings. Ceilings shall be capable of being maintained in a sanitary condition.
D. Exterior Windows. Exterior windows and skylights are not needed in the animal rooms if adequate ventilation and lights are provided. If windows are provided and are opened for ventilation purposes, effective screening is required.
E. Ventilation, Temperature, and Humidity Control.
(1) Effective ventilation shall maintain a low concentration of atmospheric contaminants, such as odors or microorganisms, shall regulate room temperature, and shall promote comfort.
(2) A ventilation system should permit individual adjustments within +=/- 4 degrees F for any temperature within a range of 65 degrees F. The relative humidity should be maintained year round within a range of 30 to 70 percent, according to the needs of the species being maintained.
(3) If animals (for example, dogs) are housed outdoors with no access to indoor facilities, provisions to aid their natural temperature regulations are essential. When the ambient temperature falls below 50 degrees F, some form of shelter and an acceptable clean nesting material shall be provided, except for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. When the ambient temperature exceeds 85 degrees F, shade shall be available and animals should be able to burrow or lie on materials several degrees cooler than the surrounding air.
F. Corridors. Corridors shall be wide enough to permit easy flow of personnel and equipment.
G. Power and Lighting. The electrical system should provide ample lighting, sufficient power outlets, safety provisions (such as explosion-proof outlets in rooms where volatile, explosive anesthetics may be used), and waterproof outlets where water is used in cleaning. Lighting shall be uniformly diffused throughout the area to be served. Although 10 to 15 footcandles of light are considered sufficient to maintain vital animal activity and rhythms, at least 50 footcandles are necessary for ordinary servicing of animal enclosures. For most animal housing areas, a minimum lighting intensity of 75 footcandles at the level of the cage racks is required. Animal treatment and examination areas should have a minimum of 100 footcandles at the work surface. Provision shall be made for emergency lighting in the event of a power failure.
H. Drainage. Floor drains, although not essential in animal rooms, if present, should be maintained in a sanitary and nuisance-free condition. Floors in these rooms can be maintained satisfactorily by wet vacuuming or by sweeping and mopping with appropriate disinfectants or cleaning compounds.
I. Service Areas in Relation to the Total Size of the Animal Facilities.
(1) An area or areas equal in square feet to at least 25 percent of the animal housing space shall be set aside for the service functions of the animal facility. The hospital service functions include all activities except animal housing.
(2) When an animal facility is 1,000 square feet or less in size, it may be permitted to carry out the service functions in an area that serves other activities as well. However, a separate facility shall be available for storage.
J. Space Recommendations for Animals. The size of a cage, pen, or run shall be such as to allow the animal housed in it to repose and change position comfortably.
K. An automatic, electronic, centrally monitored fire alarm system shall be located in a veterinary hospital. The alarm system shall be adequate to warn if fire is in any area of the hospital where an animal may be kept or treated.