.01 Requirements for Social Studies Instructional Programs for Grades Prekindergarten — 12.

A. Each local school system shall:

(1) Provide in public schools an instructional program in social studies each year for all students in grades prekindergarten—8; and

(2) Offer in public schools a social studies program in grades 9—12 which enables students to meet graduation requirements and to select social studies electives.

B. Maryland Social Studies Program. The comprehensive instructional program shall provide for the diversity of student needs, abilities, and interests at the early, middle, and high school learning years, and shall include the content standards set forth in the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards under §§C—H of this regulation.

C. Social Studies Processes and Skills. Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using the following disciplinary and inquiry literacies:

(1) Disciplinary Literacies include using deliberative process, participating in school settings, following rules, making economic decisions, using economic data, identifying prices in a market, reasoning spatially, constructing maps, using geographic data, classifying historical sources, determining the purpose of an historical source, analyzing cause and effect in history; and

(2) Inquiry Literacies include questioning, selecting sources, gathering information from sources, making claims, using evidence, constructing arguments and explanations, adapting arguments and explanations, presenting arguments and explanations, critiquing arguments and explanations, analyzing social problems, assessing options for action, and taking informed action.

D. History. Students shall:

(1) Evaluate why and how events occurred;

(2) Locate and assess a variety of sources;

(3) Engage in historical inquiry involving acquiring knowledge about significant events, developments, individuals, groups, documents, places, and ideas to support investigations about the past and its connection to the present; and

(4) Analyze how individuals and societies have changed over time in Maryland, the United States, and the world.

E. Geography. Students shall:

(1) Appreciate their own place in the world and foster curiosity about environments and cultures;

(2) Use geographic reasoning associated with physical and human factors, locations of places and regions, historic changes in political boundaries, economic activities, and cultures;

(3) Use spatial and environmental perspective; and

(4) Apply geographic representation including maps, imagery, and geospatial technologies.

F. Economics. Students shall:

(1) Evaluate decision making of individuals, businesses, governments, and societies to allocate resources;

(2) Consider costs benefits and the interaction of buyers and sellers in a global market; and

(3) Develop economic reasoning to understand the historical development and current status of economic principles, institutions, and processes needed to be effective citizens, consumers, and workers participating in local communities, the nation, and the world.

G. Civics. Students shall:

(1) Understand the historical development and current status of the fundamental concepts and processes of government including authority, power, and influence, with particular emphasis on the democratic skills and attitudes necessary to become responsible citizens; and

(2) Engage in political participation and contribute to the public process.

H. Peoples of the Nation and the World. Students shall understand the diversity and commonality, human interdependence, and global cooperation of the people of the United States and the world through a multicultural and a historical perspective.

I. Curriculum Documents. Consistent with Education Article, §4-111, Annotated Code of Maryland, each local system shall provide social studies curriculum documents for the elementary and secondary schools under its jurisdiction that:

(1) Include the content standards set forth in §§C—H of this regulation; and

(2) Are aligned with the State Curriculum, as developed by the Maryland State Department of Education in collaboration with local school systems.

J. Student Participation. Each student shall participate in the comprehensive social studies program required by this chapter.