11.14.02.10

.10 Lighting.

A. General Lamp and Reflector Inspection. This includes all original equipment, exterior lighting plus whatever lights are authorized.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
(1) Visual Check of Lamp Function. Turn on the night driving lights and visually check the following: (Check (a) and (b) with ignition switch on, engine should not be running.)   (a) Any required or permitted bulb or sealed beam unit fails to light.
  (a) Actuate turn signal level to right and left, and observe function of turn signal lights. (62 or newer model vehicles must be so equipped).   (b) Turn signals do not properly indicate right or left when so switched.
  (b) Place vehicle in all forward gears and check back-up lamps (if vehicle is so equipped). Back-up lamps are required to function when vehicle is in reverse but may not function when vehicle is in any forward gear.   (c) Turn signals do not stay in position and self-cancel if so equipped (if, because of age of the vehicle, parts are not available, this defect may be certified).
  (c) If vehicle is so equipped, actuate the following and observe lamps:   (d) Back-up light system functions when the vehicle is in any forward gear, or back-up light system fails to function when vehicle is in reverse.
   (i) Hazard warning lamps (68 or newer model vehicles shall be so equipped).
   (ii) Brake system warning lamps.
   (iii) Indicator lamps for: hazard warning flashers, turn signals, high beam headlamps and school vehicle flashing warning lamps.
  (e) Any lamp shows color contrary to law (red or blue to the front, white light to the rear) except license plate lamp and back-up lamp when vehicle is in reverse gear; (tail lamp shall be red; stop lamps red or amber; turn signals white or amber to the front and red or amber to the rear; and head lamps white).
   (iv) Stop lamps (68 or newer model vehicles shall have two red or amber—67 or older model vehicles shall have at least one red or amber). Passenger vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1985, shall also have a red high mounted stop lamp mounted with its center on the vertical centerline of the vehicle as the vehicle is viewed from the rear. The lamp may be mounted at any position on the centerline, including the glazing. If the lamp is mounted inside the vehicle, means shall be provided to minimize reflections from the light of the lamp upon the rear window glazing that might be visible to the driver when viewed directly, or indirectly, in the rearview mirror. If the lamp is mounted below the rear window, no portion of the lens may be lower than 6 inches below the rear window on convertibles or 3 inches on other passenger vehicles. High mounted stop lamps on vehicles manufactured on or after September 1, 1985, but before September 1, 1986, may flash when the hazard warning system is activated.   (f) Any lamp fails to light proper filament when switched.
  (g) Any required lamp, lens, or reflector is obscured by any object or shield by a nontransparent material, or any headlamp equipped with aftermarket clear, tinted, or screen-typed cover.
  (h) Any lamp or reflector is not mounted to properly direct or reflect light.
  (i) Any lamp assembly or reflector is loose or improperly mounted.
  (j) Any tail lamp has a cracked or broken lens which emits a white light to the rear or any headlamp (sealed beam) contains a crack or hole, even if still functioning.
  (k) Any lamp, lens or reflector is not approved type.
  (l) Equipped with any unauthorized emergency or warning lamp.
  (m) Headlamp output is less then 5,000 candlepower on high beam or less then 3,500 candlepower on low beam.
(v) Headlamps—upper and lower beam.   (n) Indicator lamps (if equipped) fail to function.
(2) Observe function of:   (o) Dash lamps do not illuminate fuel gauge, oil pressure gauge, alternator gauge, temperature gauge, speedometer, and odometer.
  (a) Tail lamps (red; two on 72 or newer models; all others one).  
  (b) Parking lamps (white or amber to the front, red to the rear).  
  (c) Side marker lamps (68 models: amber front, red rear. 69 models: amber reflector front, red reflector rear. 70 and newer models: amber lamp and reflector front; red lamp and reflector rear).  
  (d) Reflectors: 72 or newer models shall be equipped with at least two red reflectors on the rear. All other models shall have one. Reflectors may be part of the tail lamps or separate.  
  (e) Clearance lamps: when required or permitted two amber front and two red rear to indicate overall width of the vehicle. One on each side of the vertical centerline of the vehicle at the same height and as near the top of the vehicle as possible. If the vehicle is equipped with three red identification lamps on the rear, the rear clearance lamps may be mounted at the top or bottom of the vehicle.  
  (f) Permitted—type II school vehicles. Required—trucks and buses 80 inches or more in overall width.  
  (g) Identification lamps. When required or permitted three amber front and three red rear grouped in a horizontal row with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apart and mounted on a permanent structure of the vehicle as close as possible to the vertical centerline of the vehicle. Permitted—type II school vehicles. Required—front—all 72 or newer models. Trucks or buses 80 inches or more in overall width.Rear—all trucks and buses 80 inches or more in overall width.  
  (h) License plate lamp(s)—White.
  (i) Emergency/Warning Lamp when Required, School vehicles manufactured before January 1985 shall be equipped with two front and two rear alternately flashing red warning lamps unless approved otherwise. School vehicles manufactured after December 1984 shall be equipped with two front and two rear alternately flashing amber warning lamps in addition to the two front and two rear alternately flashing red warning lamps. After January 1, 1984, all school vehicles shall be equipped with two front and two rear alternately flashing amber and two front and two rear alternately flashing red warning lamps.  
  (j) Red and/or Blue; Law enforcement vehicles. Red and/or White; Emergency, Fire Department, rescue vehicles, ambulances, state vehicles used for hazardous material spills. Amber; Service, maintenance, tow-trucks, escort, slow moving farm and rural letter carrier vehicles. Rural letter carrier vehicles two bi-directional lights at each side of the vehicle on the roof. Green; Taxicab emergency hold up light.  
  (k) Dash lamps.
  (l) All interior lights (type II school vehicle only):
   (i) Six interior lamps to illuminate aisle;
   (ii) Stepwell lamp;
   (iii) Red identification lamp for emergency door (if equipped);
   (iv) Indicator lamp or signal for operation of flashing warning lamps;
   (v) Indicator lamps to monitor warning, stop, back-up, turn signal, tail and hazard lamps.
 

Figures 20—22.

(3) Preparation for Headlamp Aim Inspection. Preparation for headlamp and aim inspection to be done by owner of vehicle before inspection. Frame leveling is done at the station. Any one of the items listed below can affect the inspection results causing rejection of the vehicle. To prevent this and reduce inspection time, the inspector should have the first four of these items checked before inspection.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
  (a) Remove excessive ice and mud from under fenders.   (a) Headlamps, when lit, are equipped with any cover or ornamentation.
  (b) Inflate tires to recommended pressures.   (b) Headlamps have no aiming capability.
  (c) Be sure that lenses are clean; check for burned out bulbs and proper beam switching.   (c) Headlamps are mounted lower than 24 inches or higher than 54 inches.
  (d) Check for faulty wheel alignment or improper tracking of the rear axle.  
  (e) Headlamps may only be mounted between 24 and 54 inches. If mounting height of headlamps appears to be lower than 24 inches or higher than 54 inches, measure from the center of the headlamp to the level surface on which the vehicle stands.  

B. Headlamps. Vehicle shall be equipped with either a dual headlighting system consisting of four 5-3/4 inch diameter units, two of which shall be No. 1 and two of which shall be No. 2; or four 6-1/2 x 4-1/4 inch rectangular units, two of which shall be No. 1A and two of which shall be No. 2A; or four 5.93 x 3.64 inch rectangular-type F units, two of which shall be LF units and two of which shall be UF units; or a single headlighting system consisting of two 7 inch units; or two 8 x 5 inch rectangular units; or an approved bulb and reflector-type system. All units bearing the marking No. 2 shall be inspected and aimed on low beam. All bearing the marking No. 1 or no number will be inspected and aimed on high beam. Headlamp inspection and aiming by the photoelectric-optical method requires a level area sufficient for the vehicle and test equipment. The test equipment shall be accurately calibrated to the floor and accurately aligned to the vehicle. Additional lighting information is contained in §§F, G, and H (limits are in inches at 25 feet). Labeling requirements for sealed beam headlamps manufactured on or after July 1, 1979: 5-3/4 inch type 1-1C1, type 2-2C1; 6-1/2 inch x 4-1/4 inch type 1A-1A1, type 2A-2A1; 7 inch type 2-2D1; 8 inch x 5 inch type 2B-2B1; type F 5.93 inch by 3.64 inch—low beam—LF, high beam—UF. Type F units require special aimer adapter and must be aimed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommended procedures. Bulb and reflector-type headlamps currently approved contain a 9004 Sylvania bulb in a normal reflector unit or an H-4 bulb in a sealed reflector unit. Sealed reflector units contain a glass bubble which encases the bulb when in place, which can be detected by removing the bulb and determining if the bubble exists.

(1) High Beam.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
  (a) High Beam (Type 1). Center is:
   (i) With the vehicle in the inspection area and the test equipment properly calibrated and aligned to the vehicle, switch headlamps to high beam and observe hot spot.   (a) Horizontally:
   (i) More than 4 inches right, or
   (ii) More than 4 inches left of the vertical centerline;
   (ii) When properly aimed, the center (hot spot) of the high intensity zone is set on the vertical and horizontal centerlines of the lamp.   (b) Vertically:
   (i) More than 4 inches above, or
   (ii) More than 4 inches below the horizontal line.

(2) Low Beam. Inspect the low beam headlamp in the same method indicated as for high beam. Always inspect the following sealed beam units on low beam only: 5-3/4 inch diameter or 4-1/4 x 6-1/2 inch rectangular units marked type 2 or type 2A and 7 inch diameter or 8 x 5 inch rectangular marked type 2 or 2B.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
  (a) Passing or Low Beam (Type 2).   (a) Beam Pattern.
   (i) Under same procedure as high beam aim-inspection, switch headlamps on low beam and observe either the center of the high intensity zone or the left and top edges of the zone.    (i) Left edge is horizontally more than 4 inches right or left of the vertical centerline; or
   (ii) Top edge is vertically more than 4 inches above or below the horizontal centerline.
   (ii) When properly aimed: Edges of high intensity zone—
     Top edge centered on horizontal centerline.
     Left edge centered on vertical centerline.
  (b) Hot spot is:
   (i) Horizontally less than 11 inches or more than 19 inches; or
   (iii) Center of high intensity zone adjust hot spot to 15 inches horizontally and 11 inches vertically.    (ii) Vertically less than 7 inches or more than 15 inches.

Figure 23 HEADLAMPS.

C. Headlamp (Applicable to Type II School Vehicles Only).

(1) In order to compensate for the various conditions of loading encountered during inspection, the frame or body floor will be made level before checking. This will provide a standard condition for inspecting all vehicles and may be accomplished by using a combination of blocks under the rear wheels or a lifting device (jack) or both for the front end. A spirit level may be placed on the frame side member.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
Headlamp Aim. Attach mechanical aimer to headlamp unit according to instructions. Take readings.   (a) High Beam.
   (i) Horizontal aim is more than 4 inches to the left, or 4 inches to the right.
  (a) High Beam.    (ii) Vertical aim is more than 4 inches up, or more than 4 inches down.
  (b) Low Beam.   (b) Low Beam.
     (i) Horizontal aim is more than 4 inches to the left, or 4 inches to the right.
   (ii) Vertical aim is more than 4 inches up, or more than 4 inches down.

(2) Place vehicle in a darkened location of sufficient size for the vehicle and an additional 25 feet from lamps to screen. An approved marked screen and adequate test area are required. Level the vehicle frame as described in §C(1).The vehicle shall be located accurately in front of the screen.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
  (a) High Beam. With vehicle properly located, switch headlamps to high beam and observe center of high intensity zone on the screen. Center is:
  (a) Horizontally:
   (i) More than 4 inches right, or
     (ii) More than 4 inches left of vertical centerline;
    (b) Vertically:
     (i) More than 4 inches above, or
   (ii) More than 4 inches below the horizontal centerline.

(3) Inspect the low beam headlamp in the same method indicated as for high beam. Always inspect the following sealed beam units on low beam only: 5-3/4 inch diameter or 6-1/2 x 4-1/4 inch rectangular units marked type 2 or 2A and 7 inch diameter or 8 x 5 inch rectangular units marked 2 or 2B.

Figure 24 AIMING SCREEN BEAM PATTERN-HIGH BEAM.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
  (a) Low Beam. With vehicle properly located, switch headlamps to low beam and observe left and top edges of high intensity zone on the screen.   (a) Left edge is horizontally:
   (i) More than 4 inches left; or
   (ii) More than 4 inches right of vertical centerline.
    (b) Top edge is vertically:
     (i) More than 4 inches above; or
     (ii) More than 4 inches below the horizontal centerline.

Figure 25 AIMING SCREEN BEAM PATTERN—LOW BEAM.

D. Fog Lamp and Auxiliary Driving Lamps. (A spot lamp is not considered an auxiliary driving lamp and has no set mounting height by law. Therefore, they need not be inspected.) If a vehicle is equipped with either fog lamps or auxiliary driving lamps they shall be properly aimed. Fog lamps shall be mounted on the front of the vehicle at a height not more than 30 inches or less than 12 inches above the level surface on which a vehicle stands. Only two fog lamps are allowed by law. Auxiliary driving lamps shall be mounted on the front of the vehicle at a height not more than 42 inches or less than 16 inches above the level surface on which the vehicle stands. Only two auxiliary lamps are allowed by law. The mounting heights of auxiliary driving lamps do not apply to emergency vehicles. Whenever a motor vehicle equipped with required headlamps also is equipped with any auxiliary lamps or a spot lamp or any other lamp on its front, projecting a beam of intensity greater than 300 candlepower, not more than four of these lamps on the front of a vehicle may be lighted at any one time when on a highway.

Procedures: Reject Vehicle If:
(1) Auxiliary Driving or Fog Lamp Aim—Inspection.Under the same procedures as for headlamp inspection, switch on the lamps and observe the location of the high intensity zone or hot spot on the screen. (1) Symmetrical Beam: Center of high intensity zone if more than:
  (a) Horizontally:
   (i) 4 inches left, or
   (ii) 4 inches right of the vertical centerline; or
  (a) Symmetrical Beam.
   When properly aimed, the center of the high intensity zone is set 4 inches below the horizontal centerline of the lamp and centered on the vertical centerline.
  (b) Vertically—Less than 4 inches below the horizontal centerline.
(2) Asymmetrical Beam: Same as low beam headlamps. Center of high intensity is more than:
  (a) Horizontally:
  (b) Asymmetrical Beam.
   When properly aimed, the center of the high intensity zone is set 7 inches below a horizontal centerline of the lamp and centered on the vertical centerline.
   (i) 4 inches left, or
   (ii) 4 inches right of the vertical centerline; or
  (b) Vertically—Less than 7 inches below the horizontal centerline.
(2) Measure height of auxiliary driving or fog lamps. (3) Fog lamps or auxiliary driving lamps are mounted higher or lower than allowed. Auxiliary driving lamps mounted on roll bar or roof for off-road use may remain but may not be connected to an electrical source.
  (4) Vehicle is equipped with more than two operable fog lamps.
  (5) Vehicle is equipped with more than two auxiliary driving lamps.

E. Definitions.

(1) "Asymmetrical beam (nonsymmetrical)" means one in which both sides are not symmetrical with respect to the median vertical plane of the beam. All lower beams are asymmetrical.

(2) "Back-up" lamp means a lamp used to provide illumination behind the vehicle, and to provide an indicator when the vehicle is in reverse gear.

(3) "Cornering lamp" means a steadily burning lamp used when the turn signal system is operating to supplement the headlamps by providing additional road illumination in the direction of the turn.

(4) "Driving lamp" means an auxiliary lamp or lamps that may be used to supplement the upper beam of the regular headlamps.

(5) "Emergency warning lamp" means a lamp which provides a flashing light to identify an authorized vehicle on an emergency mission. The emergency signal may be an oscillating lamp, a rotating beacon or pairs of alternately or simultaneously flashing lamps.

(6) "Fog lamp" means a lamp which may be used with the lower beam headlights to provide illumination under condition of rain, snow, dust, or fog.

(7) "Hazard warning lamp" means a turn signal lamp which flashes simultaneously to warn of the presence of a vehicular hazard.

(8) Headlamps.

(a) 5-3/4 inch Round Sealed Beam Unit.

(i) "Type I sealed beam unit" means a sealed unit 5-3/4 inches in diameter having a single filament and providing only an upper beam distribution of light. This unit is identified by the number 1 on the lens and is aimed on the upper beam.

(ii) "Type II sealed beam unit" means a sealed unit 5-3/4 inches in diameter having two filaments, one filament providing the lower beam and one filament providing fill-in light for the upper beam. This unit is identified by the number 2 on the lens and is aimed on the lower beam.

(b) 7" Round Sealed Beam Unit.

(i) A sealed unit 7 inches in diameter providing an upper and lower beam. This unit is identified by the number 2 on the lens and is aimed on the lower beam.

(ii) No identifying Number on Lens. Sealed beam unit 7 inches in diameter providing an upper and lower beam. It is aimed on the upper beam.

(c) 8" x 5" Rectangular Sealed Beam Unit. Sealed beam unit providing an upper and lower beam. This unit is identified by the number 2B on the lens and is aimed on the lower beam.

(d) 6-1/2 x 4-1/4 inch Rectangular Sealed Beam Unit.

(i) Type 1A—sealed beam unit having a single filament and providing only an upper beam distribution of light. The unit is identified by the number 1A on the lens and is aimed on the upper beam.

(ii) Type 2A—sealed beam unit having two filaments, one filament providing fill-in light for the upper beam. This unit is identified by the number 2A on the lens and is aimed on the lower beam.

(e) 5.93 x 3.64 inch Rectangular Sealed Beam Units.

(i) Type LF—sealed beam unit having a single beam filament and providing only a lower beam distribution of light. The unit is identified by the designation LF on the lens. A special aimer adapter is required for aiming and aiming must be accomplished in accordance with the manufacturers' recommended procedures.

(ii) Type UF—sealed beam unit having a single beam filament and providing only an upper beam distribution of light. The unit is identified by the designation UF on the lens. A special aimer adapter is required for aiming and aiming (if applicable) must be accomplished in accordance with the manufacturers' recommended procedures.

(f) Bulb and Reflector Headlamps—A lamp assembly providing an upper and lower beam light by means of a replacement bulb. These lamps shall be capable of being aimed and are aimed on lower beam. They shall be capable of producing at least 3500 candlepower output on lower beam and 5000 candlepower on upper beam.

(9) "Headlamp lower beam" means a distribution of light as directed to avoid glare in the eyes of oncoming drivers while providing illumination ahead of the vehicle and intended for use in congested areas and on highways when meeting other vehicles within a distance of 500 feet.

(10) "Headlamp upper beam" means a distribution of light intended primarily for distant illumination and for use on the open highway when not meeting other vehicles.

(11) "Indicator lamp" means a lamp visible to the operator of a vehicle that indicates:

(a) Appropriate electrical circuits are in operation;

(b) Malfunction of vehicle performance; and

(c) Requirement for remedial action by the operator of the vehicle.

(12) "Lane changer" means a device, usually incorporated in the turn signal switch which will actuate the turn signal lamps when held by the driver. It is intended for momentary use for signaling a lane change. When released by the operator, it will return to neutral and deactivate the signal lamp.

(13) "License-plate lamp" means a lamp used to illuminate the license plate on the rear of a vehicle.

(14) "Operating units or switches" means devices by which the functioning of lamps are controlled.

(15) "Parking lamp" means lamps used to designate the front of a parked vehicle.

(16) "Passing lamp" means an auxiliary lamp or lamps that may be used to supplement the low beam of a standard headlamp system. It is not intended for winding roads or congested city areas.

(17) "Reflective device" means a device used on vehicles to give an indication to an approaching driver by reflected light from the headlamps of approaching vehicles.

(18) "SAE Lighting Identification Code" is a series of standardized markings for lighting devices which a manufacturer or a supplier may use to mark his product to indicate the SAE lighting standard or standards to which the device is designed to conform. The code is not intended to limit the manufacturer or supplier in applying other markings to the devices.

(19) "Sealed beam headlamp assembly" means a major lighting device used to provide general illumination ahead of the vehicle. It consists of the following:

(a) One or more sealed beam units (bulb assembly);

(b) Means for mounting securely to the vehicle;

(c) Means to permit required aim adjustment.

(20) "Sealed beam unit" means an integral and hermetically sealed optical assembly with the name "Sealed Beam" molded in the lens.

(21) "Side marker lamp" means a lamp on the left and right sides, beamed to the side, and intended to indicate vehicle length. They are located near the front and rear on each side and, for vehicles over 30 feet in length, are also located at the midpoint (intermediate side marker).

(22) "Stop lamp" means a lamp giving a steady warning light to the rear of the vehicle, to indicate the intention of the operator of the vehicle to reduce speed or stop.

(23) "Symmetrical beam" means one in which both sides are symmetrical with respect to the median vertical plane of the beam. Lamps having symmetrical beams are:

(a) 5-3/4 inch diameter type 1;

(b) 5-3/4 inch diameter type 2 (upper beam filament);

(c) 6-1/2 x 4-1/4 inch type 1A;

(d) 6-1/2 x 4-1/4 inch type 2A (upper beam filament);

(e) 8 x 5 inch type 2B (upper beam filament);

(f) All 7 inch diameter units (upper beam filament).

(24) "Tail lamp" means a lamp used to designate the rear of a vehicle.

(25) "Turn signal lamp" means a lamp which provides a flashing warning light to indicate the intended direction of the turn.

F. SAE Identification Code (J759C SAE Handbook).

(1) The following list is an identifying code for lights and signaling devices:

Device SAE Identification
Code Designation
Reflex Reflectors:
   Class A A
   Class B (used before 1969 only) B
Motorcycle and motor driven cycle turn signal lamps D
Side turn signal lamps—vehicles 30 ft. (9.1m) or more in length E
Side turn signal lamps—vehicles less than 30 ft. (9.1m) in length E2
Fog lamps F
Sealed beam headlamps (marking applies to housing or unit) H
Turn signal lamps—Class A I
Turn signal lamps—Class A spaced less than 4 in. (102mm) from headlamp I2
Turn signal flasher J590e or J5906
Hazard warning signal flasher J945b OR J945
Warning lamp alternating flasher J1054
Cornering lamps K
License plate lamps L
Motorcycle and motor driven cycle headlamps—motorcycle type M
Motorcycle and motor driven cycle headlamps—motor driven cycle type N
Spot lamps O
Parking lamps P
Clearance or side marker or identification lamps P2
Combination clearance and side marker lamps PC
Turn signal operating units Class A Q
Turn signal operating units Class B QB
Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit QC
Back-up lamps R
Stop lamps S
Tail lamps T
Supplemental high mounted stop and turn signal lamps U
Liquid burning emergency flares V
Warning lamps for emergency, maintenance and service vehicles W or W1
Warning lamps for school buses W2
360-degree emergency warning lamps W3
Emergency warning device W4
Electric emergency lanterns X
Driving lamps Y
Auxiliary low beam lamps Z

(2) All equipment for testing headlamps shall comply with the Society of Automotive Engineers Recommended Practice for Headlamp Inspection Equipment.

G. Headlamp Testing Machines.

(1) Headlamp Testing Machine. When a headlamp testing machine is used, it shall give results equivalent to those obtained using a screen. It shall be in good repair and adjustment, and shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. A machine using a photoelectric cell or cells to determine aim should also have a visual screen upon which the beam pattern is projected proportionally to its appearance and aim on the screen at 25 feet. The visual screen shall be plainly visible to the operator and have horizontal and vertical reference lines to permit visual appraisal of the lamp beam.

(2) Mechanical Aimer (applicable to school vehicles only). When a mechanical aimer is used, it shall be in good repair and adjusted, and shall be used according to the manufacturer's instructions and shall be calibrated to the slope of the floor on which the vehicle stands.

(3) Screen (applicable to school vehicles only). When a screen is used, it should be 5' high x 12' wide with a matte white surface well shaded from extraneous light, and properly adjusted to the floor on which the vehicle stands. Provisions may be made for moving the screen so that it can be aligned parallel with the rear axle and so that a horizontal line drawn perpendicularly from the centerline of the screen will pass an equal distance midway between the two headlamps. The screen shall be provided with a fixed vertical centerline, two laterally adjustable vertical tapes, and one vertically adjustable horizontal tape.