.11 Access, Egress, and Walking Surfaces.

A. General Requirements.

(1) All amusement attractions shall have a safe and adequate means of access and egress.

(2) All walking surfaces, including, but not limited to, loading and unloading areas, platforms, landings, stairs, and ramps shall be stable, firm, and slip-resistant.

(3) If there is the potential for exposure to a fall distance exceeding 30 inches, the owner shall take action to inhibit such falls.

B. Stairways, Ramps, Landings, and Platforms.

(1) Adequate stairways, ramps, landings, and platforms shall be provided at the entrance to and exit from an amusement attraction that is above or below grade or floor level.

(2) Stairways, landings, and ramps shall be designed and constructed using a safety factor of 5 to safely sustain the load that may be imposed on it.

(3) Stairways and ramps shall be at least 22 inches wide.

(4) A stairway shall be provided at entrances and exits where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more, and no ramp, runway, or sloped embankment is provided.

(5) Stair treads shall be at least 10-1/2 inches deep, exclusive of nosing, and comply with the following:

(a) The height of rise may not exceed 9 inches; and

(b) Between any two levels, stair treads shall be of uniform depth and the risers of uniform height.

(6) The maximum slope of any ramp may not exceed 1:12.

C. Passageways.

(1) Passageways shall be:

(a) At least 22 inches wide; and

(b) Kept free of debris, obstructions, projections, and other hazards.

(2) Surfaces shall be constructed and maintained to prevent slipping and tripping.

(3) Floors shall be kept free of protruding nails, splinters, holes, or loose boards.

(4) When mechanical equipment is used, appropriate guarding and sufficient safe clearances shall be maintained.

D. Handrails and Guardrails.

(1) Regardless of width, ramps and all stairs with more than one step riser shall have, on both sides, a handrail of sufficient strength and structure to provide safe support.

(2) Handrails shall be continuous without interruption and shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.

(3) Stairways and ramps 88 inches or greater in width shall have a handrail placed approximately in the center, located not more than 4 feet from any point on the stair or ramp.

(4) Handrails may not encroach on the clearance envelope of the amusement attraction.

(5) When guardrails are used, they shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 200 pounds applied in any direction at any point on the rail.

(6) Guardrails, except for barriers, guardrails, or similar means that were originally designed and manufactured as a component of the amusement attraction, shall be of a height at least 42 inches above the surface on which persons stand.

E. Fences and Gates.

(1) An owner shall ensure that each amusement attraction is protected in a manner sufficient to prevent the general public from coming in contact with an amusement attraction or gaining access to the path or course of the amusement attraction while the amusement attraction is in operation if such access or contact would present a hazard.

(2) Fences and gates shall be constructed to meet the following minimum requirements:

(a) Fences shall be designed and constructed of durable materials and erected to inhibit overturning by spectators or riders; and

(b) Fences and gates shall be constructed as to inhibit:

(i) Spectator contact with the amusement attraction;

(ii) Rider contact with fences or gates; and

(iii) Contact between a spectator and rider while the amusement attraction is in operation.

(3) When fences and gates are provided, they shall be of a height at least 36 inches above the surface on which the spectators or riders stand.

(4) Gates shall:

(a) Be provided at each entrance and exit; and

(b) Unless equipped with a positive latching or holding device, open away from the amusement attraction.

(5) A gate shall be designed so that if opened during the operating cycle, the gate will not come in contact with the amusement attraction or cause a hazard to riders.

(6) Replacement fences, gates, and guardrails shall comply with ASTM F 2291—04, Section 14.